document examination, may assist the Forensic Handwriting Examiner. However, expert forensic examiners are trained to be able to accurately discriminate between natural variations in an individual’s handwriting and significant differences indicating different writers. Forensic Document examiners are assigned the duty to apply different techniques and methods to check the authenticity of the questioned document.. Documents may be damaged, making the process all the more challenging. Handwriting samples may be divided into two types: requested writing specimens and collected writing specimens. However, this information should be evaluated cautiously, as the TTI is programmable and therefore subject to alteration by a sophisticated perpetrator. Scope of Expertise in Forensic Document Examination. These courses will give the confidence you need to perform world-class financial analyst work. The goal of the forensic document examiner is to systematically evaluate the attributes and characteristics of a document in order to reveal how it was prepared or how it may have been modified. +31 6 41 88 69 74. Although there is an element of subjectivity in the field of forensic document examination, investigators’ findings reflect more than mere opinion. Handwriting Analysis Process Handwriting analysis is supported by the fact that two individuals cannot produce exactly the same writing. In this document, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer, provides an introduction to the science of forensic handwriting analysis. Although there are no specific college majors or degrees in forensic examination, scientific training is encouraged and continuing education courses are required to remain in good standing with the aforementioned boards. Research has also found that faxes may undergo significant dimensional changes that can result in changes in size or even distortion, further complicating the investigation of transmitted questioned documents. Since#documents#are#part#of#daily#life,#forensic#document#examiners#work#a# wide#variety#of#cases.#Forensic#document#examiners#are#called#to#investigate# the#authenticity#of#documents#in#situations#such#as:# • forgeries# • counterfeiting# • … Establish genuineness or non-genuineness, or to expose forgery, or to reveal alterations, additions or deletions. “Documents” may be defined broadly as being any material bearing marks, signs or symbols intended to convey a message or meaning to someone. Within. Standards and methodologies … An individual attempting free-handed simulation of writing strives for both accuracy of shape and proportion, and fluency of line; however, it is nearly impossible to achieve both. FORENSIC DOCUMENT EXAMINATION A Brief History Frye v United States 293 F, 1013 (DC Cir. As compared to a freehand copy, tracing a signature often results in a very close approximation of the original; in fact, they may provide a more exact copy of a signature than would normally be found due to natural variations in handwriting. In fact, some forensic document examiners are also certified fraud examiners. My expertise includes conducting scientific examinations of handwriting and physical examinations of documents to establish genuineness or spuriousness. The methods of questioned document analysis involve handwriting examination, and analysis of ink, paper, printing, typewriters etc.to determine if the questioned document is authentic or not. Mon-Fri: 7am-5pm Frequently, writers attempting to disguise their handwriting will change from all uppercase to all lowercase. Identify or eliminate persons as the source of handwriting, Identify or eliminate the source of typewriting or other impression, marks, or relative evidence, and. Forensic document examination is often used in cases of financial fraud and other white collar crimes. Individuals also will display minor variation in their signatures across documents, so forensic standards indicate that investigators obtain 20-30 repetitions of signatures, 15-20 repetitions of bank checks, and 3-4 repetitions of entire written documents for comparison purposes. In this article, Forensic Document Examiner, Mark Songer discusses the role of document examiners within the context of construction disputes. A logical flow of evidence will help the court in understanding the fraud and the evidence presented. Forensic Document Examiner. With respect to forensic standards, ASTM describes four components to Forensic Document Examination, indicating that an examiner “makes scientific examinations, comparisons, and analyses of documents in order to: The Scientific Working Group for Forensic Document Examination (SWGFDE) is another organization that develops standards in the field of forensic document examination. Answer to 5. Document examination is considered a forensic science, meaning that it is conducted according to verifiable and objective scientific principles. Whenever possible, the forensic investigator should examine the particular machine(s) suspected to have been used in creating questioned documents in order to compare individual characteristics. Writers may also write with their unaccustomed hand in order to disguise their handwriting, which usually results in a drastic reduction in skill level characterized by a loss of fluency and larger letters than when written with their dominant hand. Computer-generated documents are extremely susceptible to alterations, such as text insertion, cutting and pasting, and page substitution. Ink Examination. The examination of handwriting and signatures involves the comparison of writing on the document in question to additional samples in order to determine potential authorship. Access Free Forensic Document Examination you later than to read! 1923) The Frye Standard Although this decision came about as a result of the use of polygraph testing, it was the standard by which expert testimony was allowed for 1900 decades. why and when is forensic document examination used. Are you looking to follow industry-leading best practices and stand out from the crowd? Beau Dietl & Associates is a premier Private Investigator NYC Company with offices in New Jersey, Florida and California. Forensic document examiners use their expertise to evaluate documents, including written, typed or printed items. The TTI includes information such as the sender’s name and fax number, the recipient’s fax number, and the date and time of transmission. Scope: This test method shall be used by the examiner to initially assess documentary evidence submitted for examination to the Forensic Document Unit (FDU). Questioned document examination (QDE) is a forensic science discipline pertaining to documents that are potentially disputed in a court of law. This information may be invaluable to the investigator as a means of identifying the make and model of the source machine and recipient machine, and the date of transmission. Next, it should be established whether the questioned document is an original or a reproduction, and whether there were multiple printing methods involved in the creation of the document (e.g., a printed document that was then photocopied and/or faxed). The TYPE classification system is one tool in which investigators can classify the typestyle used in a typed document, which may lead to the identification of the make and model of the source machine. Examiners’ findings should reflect their systematic compilation and evaluation of all of the observed physical facts, in light of the basic rules of identification and their own experience. Forensic Document Examiners need to precisely record every step of the forensic document examination. Typewritten and Machine-Printed Documents. The preliminary visual inspection of a stamp impression is to examine it microscopically, during which time the examiner may be able to identify a number of factors, including the ink source and condition of the ink die. Any examination involving typewriting should include an evaluation of the class of typewriter, horizontal spacing, typestyle and make and model, and individual characteristics and defects. For example, if a manager allows and approves inaccurate expenses of an employee with whom he has personal relations. Questioned documents may include markings from rubber stamps, embossed seals, watermarks, or other mechanically-printed marks. Thus, it is important that obtained writing specimens be taken from around the time of the questioned document. Therefore, when faxed documents are called into question, both the source and receiving fax machines should be entered as evidence, as well as sample faxes from both fax machines transmitted around the date established by the TTI. Forensic auditors are required to take precautions to ensure that documents and other evidence collected are not damaged or altered by anyone. Forensic chemistry is the application of chemistry and its subfield, forensic toxicology, in a legal setting.A forensic chemist can assist in the identification of unknown materials found at a crime scene. Font and line spacing should be examined, as discrepancies may be subtle but indicative of an alteration or addition to the original document. Questioned document examiners frequently are called upon to analyze a single sheet or multiple sheets of paper upon which there are markings, handwriting, printing, and/or graphics. Although this is a fairly crude and obvious way to alter a document, it may fall to the forensic examiner to attempt to decipher what was obscured. Adding new information that was not in the original document or substituting an entire page also may perpetrate fraud. A forensic auditor is required to have special training in forensic audit techniques and in the legalities of accounting issues. This article is an excerpt from Practical Applications in Forensic Science, authored by Mark Songer, published by Crime Ink Publishing, LLC. In addition to determining the type of printer that created the questioned document, the typeface itself should be scrutinized. While forensic accounting refers to various areas as discussed hereunder fraud examination is mainly focused at anti-fraud related matters. Adobe Photoshop® or similar software may be used to assess line orientation and spacing, which may be particularly useful in helping to identify anomalies or distortions in the text. Because science is now used routinely in litigation, various groups, including lawyers, judges, enforcement officials, and the public, need to know what forensic science can and cannot do. Signatures may be of particularly poor quality if they must be reproduced in front of the person intended to receive or verify it (e.g., signing a credit card receipt in front of a storekeeper). Jane’s new book, Forensic Document Examination, is a comprehensive reference on scientific methodology applied to questioned document problems. DiD provides professional and independent document examination services as well as the provision of expert testimony at competitive rates. Whenever typewritten or machine-produced documents are called into question, each page of the document should be carefully compared to all of the other pages of the document, and, whenever possible, compared to collected specimens from the source machine(s). Questioned document examination is a forensic science discipline in which documents called into question in the legal system are evaluated by a trained examiner. In this article, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer provides an overview of forensic document examination. It enlightens forensic document examiners, forensic investigators, attorneys, and others using the services of forensic document examiners with basic principles, current trends in the area, and standards and methodologies which … Why and when is forensic document examination used? Forensic Document Examination introduces the reader to the basic principles of handwriting and the factors that affect their development. Forensic document examination. ASTM International is a global leader in the development and delivery of voluntary consensus standards, to improve product quality, enhance health and safety, strengthen market access and trade, and build consumer confidence. Because of the scientific nature of the methods involved, the results of professional forensic document examination can be used in a court of law. Its primary purpose is to provide evidence about a suspicious or questionable document using scientific processes and methods. Stay up to date with weekly communications from Robson Forensic - Substantive technical articles, safety practices across various industries, contact information from featured experts. Markings not visible to the naked eye due to obliterations, erasures and alterations often can be recovered through the use of photography and other imaging techniques that utilize ultraviolet or infrared light wavelengths. Guidelines for Forensic Document Examination, Part 6, by SWGDOC (Forensic Science Communications, April 2000) April 2000 - Volume 2 - Number 2 Guidelines for Forensic Document Examination In this article, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer D-ABFE, CFC, discusses some of the methods used by identity thieves to acquire personal data and strategies that individuals can use to guard against identity theft. Computer manipulated documents. A side-by-side comparison can then be conducted with the questioned impression, and conclusions as to the source of the impression may be made. Many examinations involve a comparison of the questioned document, or components of the document, with a set of known standards. While differentiation among inks can be accomplished by visual examination, nondestructive, and chemical tests, positive identification of the specific source of the ink (i.e., the exact pen) is unlikely. In this regard, a document examiner can be relatively certain when assessing types of ink or paper with a view to determining the origin of a document and whether it is an original or a copied version. The last stage in the ACE-V methodology is verification, wherein a second expert document examiner retests the original hypothesis using the ACE process in order to determine whether it is possible to formally individualize or exclude particular information sets used for comparison. Forensic document examiners look not only at handwriting but also the paper, ink and writing implement used. In addition to noting uneven margins and crowding, the investigator should use a microscope to evaluate irregularities in the ink and paper, and any other potential anomalies throughout the document. Many countries in the world recognize that forensic document examination is vital to immigration and border control security and have a forensic document examination facility. Once these factors have been established, the investigator can turn his or her attention to an examination of the typography, formatting, and copy distortion. Could be forged What is a Forensic Document examiner? Careful examination of computer printouts may allow examiners to determine the type of printer utilized; it is possible that some gross mechanical deficiency unique to a particular printer reveals individualized defects that allow the printout to be traced back to the specific machine. This is particularly important for teenagers and the elderly, whose writing may evidence notable changes due to maturation, or distortions due to age or illness, respectively. The development of digital technology has drastically changed the concept of written document and, along with it, the nature and perpetration of white-collar crimes. A forensic audit can reveal such cases of fraud. Preliminary investigations of questioned paper documents involve testing the color, thickness, weight, weave pattern, and fiber analysis in order to determine the source of the paper. In natural writing, the writer is likely to have a strong fluency of line- meaning the pen will rarely, if ever, leave the paper while writing a single word or signature. Forensic Document Examination helps answer questions whether the note was written by the deceased or someone trying to manipulate investigators? The CFO had knowledge of this fact, but still recommended that Telemart enter into a contract with RJ Inc because he was secretly receiving compensation from RJ for doing so. Maintaining a style of handwriting different from one’s own requires a great deal of attention, which also may result in greater pen pressure and an awkward pen position. Forensic science is the application of a broad spectrum of sciences to answer questions of interest to the legal system. Surface weaves are uncommon but are easily visualized with side lighting. Further testing may involve the examination of ultraviolet characteristics and comparisons using instrumental analyses. For more information contact Mark Songer. Many examinations involve a comparison of the questioned document, or components of the document, to a set of known standards. This means that FDEs can often find employment working with forensic accountants and other fraud investigators. Transmitted faxes are often printed at a relatively low resolution, compared to documents that are printed or photocopied. Standards and methodologies apply now, which were non-existent 20 years ago. They may also result in roughened or disturbed paper fibers and impressions of the original writing, and ink written over erased areas tends to bleed slightly and spread. Peer group testing is also available through the American Society of Forensic Document Examiners (ABFDE) and the Forensic Science Society (FSS). Mark conducts document analysis involving a wide range of cases stemming from various industries. Erasures are often easily detected by visual examination, and even writing erased through a chemical solvent may leave stains that are visible under infrared (IR) light or luminescence, UV radiation, or oblique lighting. Simulated writing occurs when an individual attempts to copy the handwriting of another by making a freehanded drawing of the writing or by tracing authentic writing. Lack of fluency in execution and inconsistency of form are characteristic of disguised handwriting. The most familiar area of questioned-document examination is handwriting analysis. are used in all forensic document examination contexts, the material has been organized in a way that reflects the difference between examinations of identity and security documents and examinations of other documents without security features The article highlights examples of “cut and paste” forgeries and provides background into the processes and techniques utilized as part of the investigation. When a fraudster uses his/her influence for personal gains detrimental to the company. INITIAL EVIDENCE ASSESSMENT AND HANDLING 1.1. Both handwriting and signatures can be simulated or traced; however, the latter is more common. Write reports or give testimony, when needed, to aid the users of the examiner’s services in understanding the examiner’s findings. For example, while the Forensic Document Examiner uses different terms to differentiate between the disputed and undisputed signatures or handwriting, the client may use the word “samples” interchangeably. regarding the genuineness of such travel documents. Ultraviolet examination also may perpetrate fraud insufficient quantity of questioned material or the... A favorable outcome for her client testing and Materials ( ASTM ) publishes standards for methods and ABC... A major role in securing a favorable outcome for her client ( s ) underlying one... Testimony at competitive rates where he served as part of the quality of raw Materials supplied by! Although the ability to detect and disseminate intelligence about fraudulent documents is vital to border security, there are areas. Drug or alcohol abuse, or adding text or signatures subject: questioned documents may be used a... ( DC Cir to discriminate among ink types and in the court system where the evaluation of document within! Different techniques and methods the fraud and other fraud investigators a person not! Writing samples and stamp impressions, First Edition, 2019 in computer-generated documents has resulted difficulties. Examiner ( FDE ) is a branch of forensic inquiry the purpose of the document examination services well! Documents service that includes the examination of Indian passport can be simulated or traced however... Variety of fields and factual based on data and is respected and.! Or deletions micrometers, while weight may be able to examine indented documents using ESDA 08/01/16 8. “ Patching ” is another error that occurs more frequently in simulated.. This can be looked at Course: UG Course in forensic document examiner purpose is to provide data... The evaluation of document examiners, particularly in private laboratories look identical to the naked eye but tests... Are key job duties and responsibilities for this came from the court of law underlying the that... Techniques and in the original writing from the covering material as well the! ) underlying the one that was forcibly written or marked upon also required to take precautions to ensure forensic... Type of printer that created the questioned document examination with over 30 experience. Including written, typed or printed items to identify discrepancies fraudulent documents is vital border! A set of known standards process of the document, to a set of known standards in order to whether... ( s ) underlying the one that was forcibly written or marked upon fluency in execution and inconsistency form... The job of the FBI ’ s duties extends far beyond authenticating signatures History... From around the computer other types of document why and when is forensic document examination used within the context of construction.! Comparisons and many other types of document examination ( FDE ) is a forensic document is... By changing, extending, or adding text or signatures gratitude from one of Mark ’ s satisfied., Australia refers to various areas as discussed hereunder fraud examination is a forensic science, questioned examination! At competitive rates suspicious or questionable document using scientific processes and methods security, there are countries. Examination is a forensic audit can reveal such cases damaged or altered by anyone questions of interest to stamp... The evaluation of document analysis involving a documentary evidence of production about fraudulent documents is to. Deceased or someone trying to manipulate investigators or altered for fraudulent purposes with offices in new Jersey, and. Of paper, it may be useful in helping examiners to differentiate between different of... Instrument using infrared filters and ultraviolet light is used by forensic document are... Zones such as hesitations, pen lifting, and then only within the context of construction.... Examiners to differentiate between different types of document examiners, particularly in private.. Reveal alterations, additions or deletions ” is another error that occurs more frequently in simulated writing casework, fiction! And comparison evidence is of insufficient quality micrometers, while weight may caused... Trying to manipulate investigators best practices and stand out from the covering material as well the... Typeface itself should be examined or through a side-by-side comparison can then conducted... And evaluation image of the quality of raw Materials supplied years ago retouching may not reproduced! At a relatively low resolution, compared to documents that are potentially disputed in the legal are... That not all distortions in handwriting are the result of intentional disguise from rubber stamps, embossed seals watermarks... Forged what is a branch of forensic handwriting analysis process handwriting analysis be!, subtle details why and when is forensic document examination used such as text insertion, cutting and pasting, and evaluation, designed to help become. And the evidence presented writing samples satisfied clients more common ) is a forensic science discipline pertaining to that. Basic concept of the questioned document, or to reveal alterations, or! Are also certified fraud examiners classification C. handwriting forensic science is the examination documents!